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In 1866, eleven years after the strong memorial presented to the Legislature by county superintendents of the poor setting forth the neglected condition of the insane and recommending the establishment of two additional state hospitals for their care and treatment, Governor Fenton appointed five commissioners to secure a suitable site "on or near the Hudson River below the City of Albany, upon which to erect the Hudson River Asylum for the Insane." The offer of a 208-acre farm jointly by the County of Dutchess and the City of Poughkeepsie was accepted and during the following year the Legislature appropriated $100,000 for the construction of one building. Meanwhile there had been appointed a Board of Managers of nine members, who had selected as superintendent Dr. Joseph M. Cleaveland, who had received his training in the parent institution at Utica. With the appropriation above referred to the managers procured an additional 84 acres of land and authorized a New York firm of architects, Messrs. Vaux, Withers & Co., to prepare plans and specifications for a hospital to accommodate 250 patients of each sex. At the same time extensive plans were adopted for the improvement of the grounds. No patients were received until 1871 and only seven patients were accommodated during that year.
 
In 1866, eleven years after the strong memorial presented to the Legislature by county superintendents of the poor setting forth the neglected condition of the insane and recommending the establishment of two additional state hospitals for their care and treatment, Governor Fenton appointed five commissioners to secure a suitable site "on or near the Hudson River below the City of Albany, upon which to erect the Hudson River Asylum for the Insane." The offer of a 208-acre farm jointly by the County of Dutchess and the City of Poughkeepsie was accepted and during the following year the Legislature appropriated $100,000 for the construction of one building. Meanwhile there had been appointed a Board of Managers of nine members, who had selected as superintendent Dr. Joseph M. Cleaveland, who had received his training in the parent institution at Utica. With the appropriation above referred to the managers procured an additional 84 acres of land and authorized a New York firm of architects, Messrs. Vaux, Withers & Co., to prepare plans and specifications for a hospital to accommodate 250 patients of each sex. At the same time extensive plans were adopted for the improvement of the grounds. No patients were received until 1871 and only seven patients were accommodated during that year.
  
In 1872 the total cost of the buildings thus far reached $1,000,000 with current accommodations for only 212 patients. The State Comptroller criticized the managers for spending such an excessive amount of money and having little to show for it. In the managers reply it was pointed out that after the close of the Civil War, and especially by the enactment of the new eight-hour law, the greatly increased cost of both labor and material was responsible for the high costs. They asserted that the plan followed by them of constructing the hospital by day's work rather than by contract was the best to follow; further, that "although the hospital has cost money, it is worth the money" and that the Governor, Comptroller and other state officials had inspected the buildings and had approved the plans and specifications and general scheme of construction. However, appropriations for additional work of any magnitude were deferred until 1875, when the Governor, with legislative sanction, appointed a building superintendent to control the further construction of the hospital buildings. It was also ordered that all building operations be done under contract. Although $1,500,000 were expended in the 18 years intervening between 1868 and 1886, accommodations for only 400 patients had been provided.
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In 1872 the total cost of the buildings thus far reached $1,000,000 with current accommodations for only 212 patients. The State Comptroller criticized the managers for spending such and excessive amount of money and having little to show for it. In the managers reply it was pointed out that after the close of the Civil War, and especially by the enactment of the new eight-hour law, the greatly increased cost of both labor and material was responsible for the high costs. They asserted that the plan followed by them of constructing the hospital by day's work rather than by contract was the best to follow; further, that "although the hospital has cost money, it is worth the money" and that the Governor, Comptroller and other state officials had inspected the buildings and had approved the plans and specifications and general scheme of construction. However, appropriations for additional work of any magnitude were deferred until 1875, when the Governor, with legislative sanction, appointed a building superintendent to control the further construction of the hospital buildings. It was also ordered that all building operations be done under contract. Although $1,500,000 were expended in the 18 years intervening between 1868 and 1886, accommodations for only 400 patients had been provided.
  
 
In March, 1893, Dr. Cleaveland resigned and was succeeded by Dr. Charles W. Pilgrim, who had previously served as superintendent of the [[Willard State Hospital]]. With appropriations granted in 1891 a group of cottages had been completed on a distant portion of the hospital grounds for the accommodation of 320 of the insane remaining in the poorhouses of the state. Dr. Pilgrim also found it possible by readjustment of sitting rooms and dormitories to provide accommodations in the main institution for 302 additional patients. Thus the capacity of the institution was increased from 800 beds in 1890 to 1400 in 1893. The central group of buildings, nearly a mile from the main establishment, was enlarged and greatly improved. In 1898 the huge north wing was added, thus increasing the capacity further to 1970. The reception building, designed and equipped specially for the care and treatment of new and supposedly curable cases, was occupied in 1908, as was also the building known as Inwood, designed specially for the care of the chronic insane. The capacity was further increased by these buildings to 2708. The land now comprised in the grounds and buildings has reached 1000 acres.
 
In March, 1893, Dr. Cleaveland resigned and was succeeded by Dr. Charles W. Pilgrim, who had previously served as superintendent of the [[Willard State Hospital]]. With appropriations granted in 1891 a group of cottages had been completed on a distant portion of the hospital grounds for the accommodation of 320 of the insane remaining in the poorhouses of the state. Dr. Pilgrim also found it possible by readjustment of sitting rooms and dormitories to provide accommodations in the main institution for 302 additional patients. Thus the capacity of the institution was increased from 800 beds in 1890 to 1400 in 1893. The central group of buildings, nearly a mile from the main establishment, was enlarged and greatly improved. In 1898 the huge north wing was added, thus increasing the capacity further to 1970. The reception building, designed and equipped specially for the care and treatment of new and supposedly curable cases, was occupied in 1908, as was also the building known as Inwood, designed specially for the care of the chronic insane. The capacity was further increased by these buildings to 2708. The land now comprised in the grounds and buildings has reached 1000 acres.
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[[image:Hrsh kirkbride 3.jpg|300px|left]]
 
[[image:Hrsh kirkbride 3.jpg|300px|left]]
 
 
===The Kirkbride===
 
===The Kirkbride===
 
Frederick Clarke Withers designed the Kirkbride style Main Building in 1867. It was intended to be completed quickly, but went far over its original schedule and budget and remained under construction for almost a quarter century after it first opened. A nine-member Board of Managers was created and appointed to initiate and oversee construction of the actual building. Withers planned a building 1,500 feet (457 m) in length and over 500,000 square feet (45,000 m²) in area, most of its two wings that would house patients. It was the first institutional building in the U.S. designed in the High Victorian Gothic style. Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmstead, designers of New York's Central Park, laid out the surrounding landscape. Like Withers, they had been mentored by the influential Andrew Jackson Downing in nearby Newburgh.
 
Frederick Clarke Withers designed the Kirkbride style Main Building in 1867. It was intended to be completed quickly, but went far over its original schedule and budget and remained under construction for almost a quarter century after it first opened. A nine-member Board of Managers was created and appointed to initiate and oversee construction of the actual building. Withers planned a building 1,500 feet (457 m) in length and over 500,000 square feet (45,000 m²) in area, most of its two wings that would house patients. It was the first institutional building in the U.S. designed in the High Victorian Gothic style. Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmstead, designers of New York's Central Park, laid out the surrounding landscape. Like Withers, they had been mentored by the influential Andrew Jackson Downing in nearby Newburgh.

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